Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Free Essays on Fathers And Sons

Jeff Daley – Western Civilization II – Fathers and Sons Analysis Ivan Turgenev’s â€Å"Fathers and Sons† is a novel that I think gives a good representation of Russia in the mid-nineteenth century. This is not, though, just limited to Russia and to its time period. Many of the themes and elements in this book can easily be related to those of modern times. Through the characters Paul and Bazarov, Turgenev gives the reader 2 main perspectives that were evident in such a time period. Paul represents the aristocrat, who hates modern thinking. Bazarov, on the other hand, is a Nihilist, who doesn’t believe in the principles that were laid down before him. As one is to expect, such varied views were going to cause some sort of tension in the house between the opposites. Throughout the novel, Paul and Bazarov go at it, usually with Paul starting it, Bazarov remaining calm, and Paul finally getting steamed. In chapter 6, Paul and Bazarov have their first â€Å"discussion†, if you will. Paul wants to know where Bazarov stands on the topic of Germans. I feel as though Paul wanted an argument from the start, as he knew that Bazarov was going to take an opposing standpoint to his own. In other chapters, their tension continues to build, and eventually they settle it with a duel. The way that I see it, both of the men were acting immaturely. Bazarov comes off way too pompous in his views. He’s extremely cocky and he has no fear in expressing it. At the same time, though, Paul is almost the same way. He purposely questions Bazarov on politics and what not, trying, basically, to get a rise out of him. Like I said before, their arguments end in Paul getting furious, almost to the point of fighting, while Bazarov remains calm and cool. One of the main reasons of this clash is generational conflict. It is evident in every new generation; the younger ideals don’t appeal to the older generation, as they still believe ... Free Essays on Fathers And Sons Free Essays on Fathers And Sons Jeff Daley – Western Civilization II – Fathers and Sons Analysis Ivan Turgenev’s â€Å"Fathers and Sons† is a novel that I think gives a good representation of Russia in the mid-nineteenth century. This is not, though, just limited to Russia and to its time period. Many of the themes and elements in this book can easily be related to those of modern times. Through the characters Paul and Bazarov, Turgenev gives the reader 2 main perspectives that were evident in such a time period. Paul represents the aristocrat, who hates modern thinking. Bazarov, on the other hand, is a Nihilist, who doesn’t believe in the principles that were laid down before him. As one is to expect, such varied views were going to cause some sort of tension in the house between the opposites. Throughout the novel, Paul and Bazarov go at it, usually with Paul starting it, Bazarov remaining calm, and Paul finally getting steamed. In chapter 6, Paul and Bazarov have their first â€Å"discussion†, if you will. Paul wants to know where Bazarov stands on the topic of Germans. I feel as though Paul wanted an argument from the start, as he knew that Bazarov was going to take an opposing standpoint to his own. In other chapters, their tension continues to build, and eventually they settle it with a duel. The way that I see it, both of the men were acting immaturely. Bazarov comes off way too pompous in his views. He’s extremely cocky and he has no fear in expressing it. At the same time, though, Paul is almost the same way. He purposely questions Bazarov on politics and what not, trying, basically, to get a rise out of him. Like I said before, their arguments end in Paul getting furious, almost to the point of fighting, while Bazarov remains calm and cool. One of the main reasons of this clash is generational conflict. It is evident in every new generation; the younger ideals don’t appeal to the older generation, as they still believe ...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Study on the Framing Effect of People When Decisions Are Made Through Foreign Language and Native Language

A Study on the Framing Effect of People When Decisions Are Made Through Foreign Language and Native Language A study was carried out to test the framing effect of people after a foreign language and a native language are used to make decisions. A number of participants who spoke specific common native and secondary language were used in the study to determine the effect indicating that this was an experiment that sought to determine how native language and a second language affect decision making. Dependent variables in an experiment refer to the variables that can never be operational in the absence of the others while independent variables refer to the variables that are operational in the absence of the others. Independent variables in this experiment were the language used since one could have made a decision using any language while the dependent variables were the experimental outcomes since any outcome depended on the language used. Random samples of different groups of participants who spoke common native and common foreign languages were selected and their fluency in these languages evaluated. Those that never met the standards required were eliminated from the selected participants to encourage uniformity. Different groups were then presented with two cases in which they were supposed to make a decision favoring one of the cases using both the native and foreign language. And the results were collected basing on the extent to which a decision was made in native language and the extent to which it was made in a foreign language It was discovered that bias in decision making can be eliminated when using an alien dialect. The four experiments conducted indicated that the framing effect tends to disappear when a foreign language is used in making a decision after being presented with choices. It was also discovered that people tend to be risk aversive when advantages are considered and and tend to be risk seeking when there exists cases of losses and when there is a presentation of choices in the native language and the framing manipulation had no effect on them (Shiv, et al, 2005). Additional experiments indicated that evading losses undergoes reductionwhere alien dialect is in usewhen making decisions thus the chances of accepting both hypothetical and real bets are high Critique The experiment is not 100% reliable and valid to the extent that very few random samples were taken to represent the whole population in the globe. There are those people who have almost equal command of native and foreign language and using both languages, they can make similar decisions. Such people were never included in the experiment. The experiment was also conducted in a few parts of the globe thus ignoring most of the other parts when coming up with the conclusion. This means that the findings were never correctly interpreted. Further interpretation and research can be made when almost all parts of the globe are covered to minimize generalization. Ethical safeguards were never fully employed since the beliefs of the people were never fully considered especially when dealing with the cases of making choices regarding bets since there are a number of people who do not believe in such issues thus their decisions get jeopardized. A follow-up study can be used to study the exten t of emotions presented when using a native language and a foreign language. According to CaldwellAycicegi (2009),it can be noted that people are more emotionally attached to their native language thus displaying a higher degree of emotions than when alien dialect is used. However, the results presented were strong since the command and decision making as well as emotions are stronger when using the native language than a foreign language. Therefore, the distance in the attachment of the cognitive self with a foreign language results to the presented findings. Such issues tend to be additional implications of using foreign language over the native language. The problem with the research is that only a small group was used in the study to represent the whole globe where people from all walks of life were never involved in order to come up with the correct decision. The method is better in presenting decisions that are reached when making decisions using a foreign language and native language. It can be noted that a more desired decision that is free of bias can be reached at when alien dialect is used. Brief summary Bias when making decisons can be reduced when a foreign dialect is employed and â€Å"framing effect† tends to disappear in cases where decisions the presentation of decisions is made in an alien dialect (Benjamin, Brown, Shapiro, 2006.avding of losses tends to take place when alien dialect is employed due to the huge cognitive and emotional distance caused by a foreign language. This experiment could have been more desirable if a large part of the global population was used in the experiment instead of using a very small sample to make the decision pertaining to the whole globe. The experiment can be used in making decisions where more desirable decisions that are free of bias are made. Trauma-Informed School Social Work Everyone in a school setting is subject to various forms of pressure, scarce resources and demand. Young people and adults both attend school each with an independent history of trauma that is hard to identify. Therefore, a trauma-informed approach is critical when employed in dealing with students in a school setting. This is because if left unattended, it affects the students’ behavioural, social and academic performance. Various other technical means might not work in cases where trauma is involved leading to traumatization of the student. A study conducted within a period of the year yielded results indicating that 60% of children are subject to violence or abuse (Finkelhor et al, 2009). An assumption that at least every student in a school setting has ever experienced a traumatizing event can be made. Trauma originates from an event that threatens a person’s safety thus making him fear, experience horror or even feel hopeless). Trauma can be as a result of domestic violence, sexual or physical abuse, violence, emotional or physical neglect, betrayal, accidents, life-threatening illness among others (National Child, Traumatic Network, 2013). Traumatic incidences may affect the behaviour, social or even academic performance of a student (Steel and Malchiodi, 2012). Trauma-informed responses become a remedy of the misbehaviours and punishments that may affect the involved student (Blaustein and Kinniburgh, 2010) Adults may be faced with unruly behaviours that originate from the traumatized students. At such a time the efforts of the adults to bring to an end the funny behaviour may not bear fruits which leads to frustration and anger among the involved parties. The trauma-informed approach is critical in opening up new possibilities for change where disciplinary methods are employed in such a way that while teaching the child how to regulate his emotions, safety and empathy are employed. These can be done at the same time since firm discipline and empathy are not mutually exclusive. The administrators, workers as well as teachers areon how to identify and retort to trauma cases. Trauma-informed school is concerned about the recovery and resilience of traumatized students through the implementation of organizational practices, policies and culture that help in the reflection of trauma skills and awareness and thus ensuring student’s security comes first (Ryan, Testa and Zai 2008) The school social workers should, therefore, be involved in teaching the students, school staff and the society in general about what trauma is and how it tends to affect the individuals. They should also be involved in the process of creating a collaborative network that links the parents, school personnel, teachers and the community in general which helps in the creation and monitoring of school policies that ensure the safety of the students from traumatizing experiences. The school social workers are the catalysts for ensuring that a trauma-informed school culture is created to ensure the safety of everyone in the school. This can only be done by mediating the parents, the school staff and the teachers to come up with the best ways to deal with the student’s behaviour and fostering academic achievements in a trauma-informed manner. They should also educate the teachers on how to deal with the students without getting angry or using harsh language. School social workers and the staff should always focus on the child’s cognition as well as the sensory processes that require sensory intervention. Social workers should also be involved in sharing with the students a curriculum that helps in teaching the students how to identify their bodily sensations and emotions helping the students to identify the difference between the past and the present occurrences which allows them to handle each situation differently. Social workers should also b e involved in engaging parents and teachers who might as well be traumatized and helping them deal with such situations and educating them on how to handle students as well as their children. Employing a trauma-informed approach in a school is the best thing that one can do since it takes care of the traumatized students and adults in general. It is necessary for school social workers to intervene and ensure that the approach has been employed and that the students, teachers and the parents have been educated on how to handle traumatizing events which foster behavioural academic and social improvements. Marginalization of School’s Social Workers When the practice of social working began, the social workers acted as the mediators for the students who seemed to be at risk thus acting as a linkage between the homes and the schools (Allen, Washington and Welsh, 1996). Various reforms were seen in the education sector due to the widespread changes that took place in the globe due to industrialization include the compulsory law of school attendance(Phillippo and Blosser, 2013). Therefore, the social workers have for a long time been considered the best means through which student’s problems can be solved. The responsibility of the social workers in schools has been assumed where they have not been involved in making the major decisions in schools. Perpetuated by the consequential practices and shift in the philosophical framework that shapes the responsibilities of the workers, it is evident that marginalization of the of the school’s social workers has taken place for a long time. With the shift in the responsibilities of the social workers, their work has currently been seen as handling mental illnesses in schools rather than addressing the attendance of the students in schools and their changes in behaviors as well as informing their families on the educational requirements and as well as the available community resources (Phillippo and Blosser, 2013). Phillippo and Blosser, (2013) states that the reforms made in the education system in the 1970s which promoted learning among the students with cognitive learning issues as well as physical challenges and advocated for the n ecessity of social workers to schools saw them being the reasonable people who can be charged with the responsibility of taking care of this kind of students. However as they provided the necessary services to the mentally and physically challenged students, their contribution and incidence in the general education system gradually faded D’ Agostino, (2013) concurs with Philippo and Blosser by stating that marginalization has also been exacerbated by the financial constraints for special education where the available capital determines and describes the job done by the social workers and their day to day activities within the school thus limiting their involvement and responsibilities in school affairs. As a result, social workers contribution in the general education has been dismissed since they are only known to deal with the disabled students in the society which is known to be their traditional role thus underestimating their value in the school and the society in general. The occupational profile of social workers is created by â€Å"National Association of Social Workers† (NASW, 2010). It defines the responsibility of the social workers within a school such as conducting home visits, developing plans for treatment, student’s advocacy as well as completion of family and students assessment among other similar roles. There lacks the role of curriculum development and development of leadership activities in the school thus the profession seems to devalue the workers in some way. It is, therefore, necessary for the school administrators and the social workers to come together and redefine the roles and responsibility and contribution to schools and students success (Bye et al, 2009). This would help in eliminating the rift that exists between the social workers and the school guidance and counselling workers in all departments especially in leadership (Altshuler and Webb, 2009) which creates a necessity for their collaboration with the sc hool’s leadership. The social workers must also be versed with self-advocacy which allows to speak to the world and explain the essence of their practices in schools. Social workers have largely contributed to the achievement of the scholars in a school. However unrecognized, their work is unimaginably explicit. There should be a change in the system that defines the roles of the social workers in a school in order to endorse them with the responsibilities that they are supposed to carry out in a school. Apart from their contribution in helping the mentally and psychologically challenged students, they should be allowed to interact with the other students and be involved in school matters to transform the lives of the students and the operations of the school for the better.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Prime Time TV Show - Greys Anatomy Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Prime Time TV Show - Greys Anatomy - Assignment Example The basic ideology present in Grey’s Anatomy is a pro-feminist approach. The female doctors outnumber the male doctors nearly in all seasons. The major feminist character of the show is Miranda Bailey played by Chandra Wilson. She is portrayed as a strong and a dedicated doctor who is in one episode doubts her ability as a doctor so in another decides to build a free clinic. (Nicole). Also, the show avoids all stereotype issues especially since it has placed many of the black and Asian doctors in a respectable position in the show (Pierce). Clothes have been used as a symbol to show everybody’s position and personality in the hospital. While all the hospitals have one coloured uniform for every employee, in Grey’s Anatomy the situation is quite different. The interns wear light blue while surgical attending wears dark blue, doctors in nursery wear purple and OB-GYN wear pink while all the nurses wear light green which doesn’t bring them out in the mainstream as they rarely play any major role. Apart from this in several places food has been used as a symbol to identify the relationship status. For instance, Meredith doesn’t eat at Thanksgiving because of her troubled relationship with Derek and Izzy bakes excessively each time she is upset. While Grey’s anatomy enjoys appraisal by many it is also criticized for being a non-reality show. When questioned by doctors they laugh at the show saying an intern having a relationship with an attending is almost impossible and the part where Izzie puts her patient into danger by cutting the wire connected to his heart to make him sicker so he ends up having a heart transplant is a bit farfetched. Especially when the patient dies and Izzie doesn’t even get terminated. Another reality which was highly miss-presented was when Meredith rises from the death and ten seconds later starts talking to Derek (Frey).   Some of the popular Grey’s Anatomy sponsors were DatingDirect.com and Alpen bar, Weetabix's cereal snack and Volkswagen Polo.     

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Animal Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Animal - Research Paper Example Among the tests done on animals are the pharmaceutical testing which involves testing the mode of action of new drugs on animals before it is utilized by human being. The paper seeks to oppose the use of animals in scientific experiments. Animal just like human beings have rights. By understanding the rights of animals, scientists all over the world will consider other alternative research methods. Organizations have come up with an intention of protecting the rights of animals all over the world yet animals have continued being utilized in thousands of experiments without considering their safety. Some organizations such as the PETA international science consortium (PISC) have been set up with an intention of stopping the continued conduction of experiments on animals. The organization has funded and promoted the research types that utilized non animal methods. The organization has in the long run championed the non animal research methods and declined duplicate testing. The organization has ensured harmonization and global implementation of non animal methods of research. Though scientists have made us believe that sicknesses and diseases will reduce human being population if they end up giving up on using animals in animal researchers, they should also focus on the rights of the animals used and the safety. Many animals have died in experiments and it is time to stop such a n archaic habit and seek for alternatives, such as the non animals experiments. Continuous use of animals has reduced their numbers and some are even becoming extinct. Recent research has also indicated that animal’s body does not resemble the human body and should be continuously utilized in the experiments. Studies have indicated that animal experimenters have wasted human and animal lives with an intention of providing solutions to diseases and illnesses done through research. Animals have contracted diseases in the process and succumbed in the process.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Loyalty in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, The Odyssey by Homer and Do

Loyalty in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, The Odyssey by Homer and Don Quixote by Cervantes This essay has some structural problems. Loyalty is a theme found in many classics. The three classics that are discussed in this paper are _Sir Gawain and the Green Knight_, written by an unknown author, _The Odyssey_ by Homer, and _Don Quixote_, written by Miguel de Cervantes. In all three of the masterpieces loyalty can be traced through the characters action and words. Loyalty is evident in the characters behaviors to one another or maybe through a test they endure. In _The Odyssey_, _Sir Gawain and the Green Knight_, and _Don Quixote_ loyalty is apparent throughout the story. _The Odyssey_ is believed to have been written by Homer and is infused with loyalty throughout the entire epic story. Odysseus is the most faithful, loving, and loyal husband, to Penelope, that any woman could dream of. Odysseus, in the beginning of his description of the trials and tribulations that he has endured, pledged his eternal loyalty to his ever-faithful wife Penelope. ?We are mortal weary and sick at heart/? [if only] now may I see once more/ my hall, my lands, my people before I die!? (Homer 7:233-240). Thought Odysseus did lie with the goddess his loyalty to Penelope held true. The ?Enchantress in her beauty? (Homer 7:274) enslaved the grand Odysseus to her will; yet Odysseus ?in [his] heart [he] never gave consent.? (Homer 7:276) The goddess offered Odysseus a choice, the ?promise [that he] should be/ immortal, [and] youthful, all the days to come? (Homer 7:275-276) or to continue his long continuous voyage to his queen Penelope. Because Odysseus chose to return to his devoted Penelope instead of gaining immortal life he has provided... ...th all my heart and could not bring myself to leave him, no matter how many foolish thing he does.? (Cervantes 2036). Examples of loyalty can be found in many pieces of classic literature such as _Don Quixote_, _The Odyssey_, and _Sir Gawain and the Green Knight_. Many characters in the stories profess their loyalty to other characters. Some of them fail in their loyalty tests while others prevail. I found loyalty to be an underlying theme in all three pieces of literature covered in this paper. The examples provided should prove the theme of loyalty. Bibliography: Cervantes, Miguel. _Don Quixote_. Lawall 1960-2071. Homer. _The Odyssey_. Lawall 209-513. Lawall, Sarah and Maynard Mack, Eds. _The Norton Anthology of world masterpieces: The Western Traditions_. New York. 1999. _Sir Gawain and the Green Knight_. Lawall 1458-1585.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Marketing the X-Box

Introduction The main aim of this project is to help me understand the marketing process, which is required to launch a new successful product. The new product I will be marketing is the Microsoft X Box. Millions of new products are launched every year worldwide. Most are unsuccessful and are taken off the market after a while. Without marketing a new product is very likely to fail. Microsoft needs to market their products because there is so much choice in the market. Marketing will give Microsoft a better understanding of the market and customers needs and wants. I will be acting as the marketing director within this company. Marketing is basically the management process, which is responsible for identifying potentially profitable products and them selling them to customers. Microsoft is a multi-national successful company with substantial profits and is aiming at a mass market with the X Box rather than a niche market. Microsoft will want to sell to as many places as possible. A marketing plan would help improve the company's performance and increase sales. There's a lot more to marketing than just advertising, marketing involves†¦ > Researching the market and finding out what customers want. > Developing and designing a product that satisfies customers and consumers. > Producing the right amount and to the right quality of the product. > Making sure that the customer is aware of the product and what its about. > Getting the price right so that the product is affordable to customers, but also allows the business to be profitable. > Ensuring that the product is on sale in places convenient to the customers. This can be summed up using a term called the marketing mix or the 4P's, place, product, price and promotion. Place A product is unlikely to be successful if customers find it difficult to purchase. So place is a vital part of the marketing mix. Microsoft needs to consider how to get their products to the customer. Channels of distribution need to be efficient and effective. For a product to sell it must be in the right place at the right time for customers to buy. Microsoft needs to find out where it's convenient for customers to buy the X Box. The X Box is likely to sell more in Electronics Boutique rather than New Look because people go into New Look to buy clothes not games consoles, but people do go into Electronics Boutique to buy computer games or games consoles. I will need to look at: > Where to sell the X Box and why? > Channels of distribution. > Selling to places that wont tarnish the company's good reputation. > Where it's convenient to sell to customers. > Selling to as many places as possible (mass market). > Disadvantages and advantages of selling the X Box in certain places. Product Microsoft have to decide what product or range of products they are going to sell. They also have to decide what quality of product they wish to make and sell, what name to give the product and how it is to be packaged. Another decision is whether to attempt to brand the product. I will have to look at: > The product life cycle and how it could affect the X Box. > Why is the product is called the X Box. > Product range. > Does the product satisfy the needs and wants of the customers? > Research and development of the X Box. > Is Microsoft product orientated or market orientated? > Importance of quality. > Product differentiation. > Disadvantages and advantage of the X Box. Promotion Microsoft needs to decide how best to promote the products they make and sell. The decision involves weighing up the relative cost of each form or promotion and how best to target their customers. They also need to consider the use of advertising agencies. Promotion is all about communicating with potential customers, if the public isn't aware of the X Box then they are not likely to go out and buy it. Microsoft will also have to be careful not to offend potential customers with advertising that discriminates against certain people, e.g. race or gender. When looking at the promotion part of the marketing mix I will have to consider: > Different types of advertising, where to use them, why, the cost and will they be effective. > Different types of promotions, where to use them, why, the cost and will they be effective. > Stages of the product life cycle and how the affect the promotion of the X Box. > Disadvantage and advantage to promotion. Price Price is another element of the marketing mix. Microsoft must decide how to price its product. In making this decision Microsoft has to consider, what are the prices set by competitors, how price can be used to increase sales of the product, whether the price will cover costs of production, whether customers are willing to pay that set price and different pricing strategies such as skimming or penetration pricing. When looking at the price section of the marketing mix I will have to consider a number of things: > Prices set by competitors. > How price can increase or decrease sales. > Does that price cover cost of production? > Are the customers willing to pay that price? > Different pricing strategies such as skimming and penetration. > Disadvantages and advantages to setting that price. If the marketing mix is wrong, for example, the price of the X Box is too high and it is not selling in places convenient to customers, the X Box wont be as successful as it could be. The marketing mix is a vital part of ensuring a new products success, without it the product will fail. Market research is a major part of this project. It can help me to find out the customers needs and wants, which will enable me to create the right marketing mix. The product needs to be affordable, make a profit and to be promoted and sold in the right places. It is also very important that the X Box is aimed at the right segment of the market. The market can be split into different categories: Age Age can be separated into years or stages of life e.g. child, teenager, adult or pensioner. Microsoft mainly targets adults with their existing products. With the X Box Microsoft is likely to target younger people such as teenagers because they are more likely to buy the X Box rather than a pensioner. Gender Different products can be aimed at different genders e.g. make up is aimed at women and beer is aimed at men. Some people could say this is sexist but men are more likely to buy beer than make up. Businesses have to be very careful when advertising to certain genders as not to offend people. Microsoft are likely to aim the X Box more to males rather than females because boy tend to buy games consoles and computer games more than girls. Income/Occupation The population can be segmented according to their salary or occupation. Microsoft mainly targets people with above average income because their products can be slightly expensive, but they have to be careful not to advertise this because people could get offended. Microsoft also has to make sure their product is affordable to as many people as possible but not lower the price too much in case they lose profits. Area The area in which people live can divide the population. People in the northeast of England may have a different lifestyle to people the south of England, therefore their needs and wants will differ. Microsoft will need to promote the X Box in different ways according to location as to satisfy a mass market. Ethnic, cultural and religious groups Businesses need to be careful with the production and promotion of its products when it comes to different religions. If a business decides to produce its products in Asia because of cheap labour, people from Asia could refrain from buying that business' product because they are offended. Equally businesses have to be careful when advertising its products as not to offend people of certain ethnic, cultural or religious groups. Socio – economic groupings One of the most important ways of separating the population is the use of socio-economic groupings. Socio-economic groupings work like this: Social Grade Social Status Head of household's Occupation % of total UK population A Upper Middle Class Higher managerial, administrative or professional such as doctors, lawyers and company directors. 3.5% B Middle Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional such as teachers, nurses and managerial. 12-13% C1 Lower Middle Class Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial administrative or professional such as shop assistants, clerks and police constables. 22% C2 Skilled Working Class Skilled manual workers such as carpenters, cooks and train drivers. 32-33% D Working Class Semi – skilled and unskilled manual workers such as fitters and storekeepers. 19-20% E The Poorest In Society State pensioners or widows, casual or lower grade workers, or long-term unemployed. 10% The Product Life Cycle The Development Stage Products start life in the development stage. This is where the product is designed and also where the majority of the marketing is done. There are no profits at this stage, only costs. Microsoft will have to make up for the money lost in the growth stage of the product life cycle. The Introduction Stage This is the stage where the product is launched. Profits and sales are minimal in this stage, but it doesn't last too long if good advertising is used to make the customers aware of the product. The Growth Stage Sales and profits are increasing rapidly in this stage. Microsoft will have to consider what pricing strategies and promotions to use to keep the X Box in this stage as long as possible. Maturity In the maturity stage, the product reaches a peak in terms of sales. Research and development costs are likely to be paid off. The product could be profitable enough to be financing the development of new products. Saturation Towards the end of the maturity stage the market becomes saturated. Competitors bring out products to try and take sales away. It is likely that Microsoft will not be able to sell any more of the X Box at this point. Decline Eventually a product is likely to go into decline, sales will drop dramatically. Microsoft could try extension strategies at this stage to try and increase sales slightly or they could just withdraw the product from the market. The product life cycle can affect a lot of the marketing mix, for example, which promotions and pricing strategies to use at certain stages in the product life cycle. A Business would like to be in a sellers' market where customers have little choice but to buy from them. In a buyers' market though, business have to be market orientated and the greater is the need for effective marketing. I think Microsoft is in the buyers' market. Although they are a major company with substantial profits, Microsoft still have competition such as smaller software companies. The product ‘X Box' is a slightly different product from what Microsoft usually sells. Microsoft specialises in software and hardware for PC's, the ‘X Box' is a games consol, and so the main competition will be Sony and their Playstation. Although the Playstation is a very successful product it may be entering decline in the product life cycle because the Playstation has been around for a while. When the Sony Playstation started to enter the maturity stage Sony launched a new product the Playstation 2, this would be the ‘X box' main competition. I think Microsoft could afford a very large budget because the company's profits are very large, the fact that they have spent a lot of money developing the product could affect the budget for marketing the product. I estimate that the budget would be somewhere around à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½20 million. I'm going to cover various areas of marketing, which will include†¦ * Analysing the market, finding out what customers want, where best to sell it and find out about the competition and target market. * Market Research, desk research and field research. * The Product, product differentiation, ways of differentiating the product, branding and retailing. * The Product Life Cycle, look at what similar products have gone through in the five main stages. Development, introduction, growth, maturity and saturation, and decline. * Pricing, competition, costs of making, affordability and pricing strategies. * Demand and Supply, what people want, how much they want and what they are willing to pay. * Promotion, advertising packaging, direct mail etc†¦ * Place, channels of distribution. * Retailing, how retailing within the company would affect marketing. * Constraints on Marketing, the law, ethics and the market and pressure groups. They are many disadvantages and advantages of marketing. Disadvantages include things such as, cost and constraints on marketing. Constraints on marketing are ethical considerations, the law (Trade Descriptions Act 1968), codes of practice (Advertising Standards Authority) and pressure groups. Ethical considerations include things such as labour, many multinational companies have been criticised for using workers in the Far East because they are relatively cheap, and the business want to take advantage of the lower costs of production. Nike was once criticised by the press because of the high prices they charge for their goods and the low wages paid to workers and low costs of production. Microsoft will have to ensure that they don't put too much of a profit mark up on the X Box, and also make ensure their workers are treated fairly. Other ethical considerations are the use of promotions and advertising such as the use of images in adverts. Many companies have been attacked by pressure groups because of the content of the adverts they use, such as images of beautiful woman that lure men into buying the product and information included in the adverts. For instance should a washing powder manufacturer claim in an advert that its washing powder ‘washes whiter' than other powders on the market when there is no scientific proof that it does? Should tobacco companies promote their products when they damage peoples health? If people are really shocked by an advert they may consider not buy the products produced by that company, therefore Microsoft will have to be careful when choosing methods of promotion. The law ensures that advertising does not fool the public. The Trade Descriptions Act 1968 states that is illegal for products to be incorrectly described for example Microsoft couldn't advertise the X Box as if it comes with a free TV if it doesn't. The government has encouraged businesses to adopt a code of practice as an alternative to passing laws. Codes of practice are rules, which businesses voluntarily agree to keep, but have no legal status. Advantages of marketing include†¦ Helping the business to get a better understanding of the market, marketing also lets the business to know what price, to set where to sell the product what promotions to use and what the potential customers want from the product. Market research will also tell the company whether there is a demand for the product in question. Marketing will change across different countries because different countries have a different way of life. For instance people in America can afford to pay a lot more for the X Box than people in the poorer parts of Africa and Asia. Market Research Microsoft needs information if they are to make good decisions. They need information about their target market to help them create a successful marketing mix. One way of gaining that information is by carrying out market research. Market research is a cost-effective way of finding out what people believe, think, want, need or do. There are various types of market research. Microsoft needs to decide what market research methods are most likely to give them the information they need. Businesses, which are mainly product, orientated risk spending a large amount of resources launching a product, which proves to be a failure. Researching the market helps reduce the risk. Microsoft should focus research and design effort onto products, which have a chance of success in the market place. When the product is launched a carefully researched product stands less chance of failing. Stages of Market Research Market research will help Microsoft to find answers to questions about the market. * What is the target market for the X Box? * How can Microsoft use the X Box to increase market share? * What is the right price to set that will maximise profits and be affordable to as many people as possible? * What are the right promotions to use that will appeal to Microsoft's target market? * Where's the best place to sell the X Box? * What do customers want and need? * What is the demand for the X Box? * What are existing patterns of sales for other games consoles? I then need to decide what information might help answer the questions, then I need to decide how best to collect this information. The information is then collected and analysed. Finally Microsoft has to make a decision about what to do in the light of the information gained. Desk Research Desk research involves the use of secondary data. This is information that is already available both within and outside the business. Information within the business Microsoft collects information routinely. Invoices for instance will tell them how much they sell and who they are selling to. Information outside the business Businesses can also collect information, which is available from sources outside the business such as: * Internal sources – such as sales invoices, reports and accounts. * Government – published statistics such as consumer spending figures, reports such as monopolies and mergers commission reports. * The Media – reports in newspapers, magazines on radio and on TV. * Trade associations – statistics or reports published by national organisations such as the TUC, the CBI or chambers of commerce or industry associations such as the Engineering Employers Federation. * Research organisations – reports prepared by specialist market research organisations such as Mintel or Mori; articles published in academic journals such as university journals. Field Research Field research involves the collection of primary data, information that no one has yet collected. It is collected specially for the particular piece of research. Primary data is collected through direct investigation, usually through observation, survey or experiment. To help me create my marketing mix I used both secondary and primary research. I collected primary data in the form of a questionnaire that I asked 50 people. I used secondary data from the Internet. I used the Internet to find out about Video Game sales and I found a report by PC Data about home Internet users planing to purchase console or PC games during the 2000 holiday season, and that PC and console gaming is no longer a male-dominated domain. This was very useful research and it helped me a lot when putting together my marketing plan. I didn't find any information from the media or the government because of lack of time. Quantitative and Qualitative Research There are two main types of survey data – quantitative, and qualitative. Quantitative Quantitative research provides numerical data. At the completion of a quantitative project it is possible to say (for example) what proportion or percentage of the population fall into different groups – those that want something, those that would be likely to buy something, those that are in favour of a particular policy or plan, etc. The essence of quantitative research is that every respondent is asked the same series of questions. Quantitative research can be done in various ways: By face-to-face interviewing, either in the street or, for more complex projects, in people's homes. This was the traditional approach to data collection, and remains important. In-home work is particularly suitable for lengthy interviews, or for some sensitive subjects. The understanding that can be established between the interviewer and the person being interviewed (the respondent) can help to ensure that detailed and thorough information is obtained. By telephone. This is a fast-growing form of data collection, is somewhat less expensive per interview than face-to-face, and can provide data more quickly – in some cases, overnight. Telephone research would rarely be suitable for lengthy interviews, but it can be ideal for smaller-scale, fast turn-round projects both amongst the public and for business research. Both face-to-face and telephone research involve the most basic form of data gathering, talking to people. There is one other form of quantitative data collection that should be mentioned – postal and self-completion research, which is the cheapest form of quantitative research, though it can take a relatively long time to gather data by post. Self-completion questionnaires can be handed out, for example, at exhibitions, on aircraft, or in town centres, to get peopleà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s views. Self-completion questionnaires must be kept simple and the researcher has little control over whom, or how many people, return the form. Another form of quantitative research is omnibus surveys. These are useful for those with small budgets and relatively few questions to ask. Qualitative Research Qualitative research, though it cannot provide numerical data, provides understanding of how or why things are as they are. It can be used on its own or to help in the development of a questionnaire for a quantitative study. There is no fixed set of questions and therefore no assumptions about what is, or is not, important. Instead there is a list of topics, problems, or possibilities to be explored. The form and nature of the discussion is heavily influenced by the informants' own concerns or assumptions. Qualitative research is the way in which typical or relevant peoples' attitudes and beliefs can be explored, and ideas can be generated. It can be used for everything from testing reaction to a potential new advertising campaign, to exploring staff attitudes to a new management structure or procedure. There are various sorts of qualitative research, including the following. * Unstructured interviews with a single informant, based on a framework of themes and topics. The interview is adapted to the individual, and the interviewer feeds off and responds to the respondents' replies. * Focus groups (or group discussions) involve a similar approach but bring together a number of relevant people – typically about eight – and therefore benefit from the interaction between the different personalities and experiences in the group. I used quantitative research because I needed to find information quickly and easily, I think qualitative research would have been a lot more time consuming and will have used a lot of resources. I decided the best way to collect information about the market was to use a survey. A survey can't ask customers for their opinion. Only a fraction or sample of customers can be surveyed. To be useful, the sample chosen must be a representation of all consumers. In a random sample, every potential respondent has an equal chance of being chosen. Random numbers can be used to do this or it could be done by ‘picking people out of a hat'. It is often quite difficult to construct a truly random sample. So a cheaper and quicker method is to use systematic sample. This is where every 100th or 1000th person on a list such as the telephone book is chosen. A systematic sample is not truly random though and therefore the results may be less reliable. In a quota sample, the sample is broken down or stratified. One problem with a quota sample is that any people who fit the description can be asked to complete the survey. So Microsoft wanting to find 50 people aged 13 – 30 to complete a survey could ask the first 50 13 – 30 year olds who came out of Electronics Boutique in Bedford. This may not be very representative of all 13 – 30 years olds nationally. A stratified random sample may get round this problem. It is a quota sample where all the respondents, the people being interviewed, must be chosen at random. Microsoft would have to find some way of selecting people aged 13 – 30 through pure chance. I used a quota sample, I asked 50 people in Electronics Boutique my questionnaire. I used Electronics Boutique because a lot of people go in there to buy game consoles and other computer related products, and asking this people would give me a good idea of the target market. I think my data is quite reliable because the people I asked my questionnaire to are the people that are most likely to buy Microsoft's products. Price Pricing Strategies The product should be launched in November ready for the Christmas rush. The pricing strategy skimming should be used in the introduction and the growth stage of the product life cycle. Skimming is setting a high price initially and then lowering it later on. This is almost always used for products that incorporate new technology such as new DVD players and PCs. Some people are willing to pay high prices for new technology, the price of the X Box will be set high at first to catch this end of the market. By doing this Microsoft can maximise their profits and cover the costs of developing the X Box. When sales start to slow down Microsoft should lower the price and use a different pricing strategy. To ensure sales keep increasing half way though the growth stage Microsoft should change the pricing strategy from skimming to market orientated. This is where the price charged is based on analysis of the market and its characteristics. Market research might need to be undertaken again at this point to ensure that Microsoft knows what the customers are willing to pay. Market orientated pricing should be used at this point because the top end of the market is likely to be saturated, Microsoft will need to lower the price of the X Box slightly to provide for the people that aren't willing to pay as much. Using market orientated pricing will therefore help keep sales rising and the X Box will appeal to a broader market. When the sales of the X Box are slowing down it could be because of competition. This is when Microsoft will need to use competition based pricing because new games consoles will be being launched and the X Box wont be new technology anymore. Microsoft will need to lower the price a lot to compete with the new technology and keep people interested. Psychological pricing could be used throughout the life cycle. This is when a product is priced at 99p instead of a pound so that the customers automatically think it's cheaper. I don't think Microsoft will need to use cost based pricing with the X Box because Microsoft makes so much money off existing products going into debt wont be a problem. The X Box will soon make up for the research and developing costs in the growth stage of the life cycle. Penetration pricing also isn't appropriate for the X Box because new technology doesn't rise in price as it becomes more popular it starts off at a high price because of the cost of development. Price to be Set In the introduction stage of the life cycle the X Box should be priced at 299, in the growth stage the price should be lowered to about 249, when the market has been saturated the price should be lowered again to 199 and when the product goes into decline it should be priced between 99 and 149. Factors Affecting the Price > Cost of promotions and advertising > Cost of research and development > Customer's needs and wants > Competitors > Demand > Costs of distribution

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

What Are the Functions of Art

First, proceed with this caution: No piece of art can be assigned a function (or functions), either in essay form or in casual conversation, if it isnt first considered within the proper context. Trying to classify function depends on context. Ideally, one can look at a piece of art and know (approximately) where it came from and when. The best-case scenario includes identifying the artist, as well, because s/he is part of the contextual equation (i.e., What was the artist thinking at the time s/he created this?). You, the viewer, are the other half (i.e., What does this piece of art mean to you, at this moment?). These are all factors that should be considered before trying to assign functions. Besides, taking anything out of context can lead to misunderstanding, which is never a happy place to visit. That said, the functions of art normally fall into three categories. These are personal, social or physical functions. These categories can, and (often) do, overlap in any given piece of art. The Physical Functions of Art The physical functions of art are often the easiest to understand. Works of art that are created to perform some service have physical functions. If you see a Fijian war club, you may assume that, however wonderful the craftsmanship may be, it was created to perform the physical function of smashing skulls. A Japanese raku bowl is art that performs a physical function in the tea ceremony. Conversely, a fur-covered teacup from the Dada movement has no physical function. Architecture, any of the crafts, and industrial design are all types of art that have physical functions. The Social Functions of Art Art has a social function when it addresses aspects of (collective) life, as opposed to one persons point of view or experience. For example, public art in 1930s Germany had an overwhelming symbolic theme. Did this art exert influence on the German population? Decidedly so, as did political and patriotic posters in Allied countries during the same time. Political art (skewed to whatever message) always carries a social function. The fur-covered Dada teacup, useless for holding tea, carried a social function in that it protested World War I (and nearly everything else in life). Art that depicts social conditions performs social functions. The Realists figured this out early in the 19th century. American photographer Dorothea Lange (1895–1965) and, indeed, many other photographers often took pictures of people in conditions wed rather not think about. Additionally, satire performs social functions. Spanish painter Francisco Goya (1746–1828) and English portrait artist William Hogarth (1697–1764) both went this route, with varying degrees of success at enacting social change. Sometimes having specific pieces of art in a community can perform the social function of elevating that communitys status. A stabile by American kinetic artist Alexander Calder (1898–1976), for example, can be a community treasure and point of pride. The Personal Functions of Art The personal functions of art are often  the most difficult to explain. There are many types of personal function, and they are subjective and will, therefore, vary from person to person. An artist may create out of a need for self-expression, or gratification. S/he might have wanted to communicate a thought or point to the viewer. Perhaps the artist was trying to provide an aesthetic experience, both for self and viewers. A piece might have been meant to merely entertain others. Sometimes a piece isnt meant to have any meaning at all. Recognize that this is intentionally vague. The above is a great example of how knowing the artist can help one cut to the chase and assign functions. On a slightly more lofty plane, art may serve the personal functions of control. Art has been used to attempt to exert magical control over time, or the seasons or even the acquisition of food. Art is used to bring order to a messy and disorderly world. Conversely, art can be used to create chaos when an artist feels life is too staid and ordinary. Art can also be therapeutic—for both the artist and the viewer. Yet another personal function of art is that of religious service (lots of examples for this, arent there?). Finally, sometimes art is used to assist us in maintaining ourselves as a species. Biological functions would obviously include fertility symbols (in any culture), but there are many ways we humans adorn ourselves in order to be attractive enough to, well, mate. You, the viewer, are half of the equation in assigning a function to art. These personal functions apply to you, as well as the artist. It all adds up to innumerable variables when trying to figure out the personal functions of art. Stick with the most obvious and provide only those details you know as factual. In sum, try to remember four points when required to describe the functions of art: (1) context and (2) personal, (3) social and (4) physical functions. Good luck, and may your own words flow freely!